When election is afoot, it is the right time to contemplate voter’s education especially in our rural areas. Elections into political offices in Nigeria are often fiercely contested with its attendant challenges. So there is always the air of apprehension and anxieties whenever elections are schedule to hold.
The reasons to educate the electorates and voters in other to prepare them on the right ways to conduct themselves before and after election are critical.
Voter’s education is imperative and cannot be wished away or over emphasizes in quest to strengthen our democracy. The 2019 general election was an interesting exercise that exposed all the intrigues and political gimmick of politicians, posing to us the relevance of voter’s education.
Indeed, voter’s education is associated with insight and knowledge of voter’s rights in electioneering process.
Therefore, little wonder that in developed democracy like US and Britain, voters during election are more informed on candidates, political parties and guidelines of the election.In this, move voters education has positive implication on emergence of political leaders out of election contest.
Fortunately for us, voter’s education would strengthen our democratic process as well as reduce any electoral fraud during the forthcoming governorship election Edo and Ondo state respectively.
This is therefore important to our democracy and national development. Indeed, this has come to the heart of our observations.
The supreme task of voter’s education is paramount to the rural and urban electorates many whom have showed interest on who governed them. This may sound surprising but the current reality of change has reawakened every citizens of this country.
Obviously, has resident and indigene of both Edo and Ondo state prepare for the governorship elections comes in a matter of weeks, to our village people in the rural areas as we refer to them are in need of voter’s education, even though most of them are politically conscious of their socio-political environment.
We hope that voter’s education in its strict sense is to empower the electorates and it is a must that relevant stakeholders would undertake.
Concretely what this voters education means and how it is to be done is simply on the basis of non partisanship, respect for the electorates and devoid of sentiment (religion or ethnic) or hate speeches.
This is possible because voters need to be prepare more than before to avoid their votes been wrongly cast, the right to vote been denial and their fundamental human right not abuse.
We want to the election result to reflect the wish of the electorates, while we desire our voters to cast their vote with informed knowledge of their right to choose who they best trust. Stand and know your right as voters and follow up the result of your votes as good citizens. In all be able to hold the elected official accountable.
By: Adefolarin Olamilekan, Political Economist and Development Researcher, Email:email@example.com-Abuja.
We often use acronyms that we do not know their meaning in our everyday lives. Some of us also use some abbreviations that we do not their meaning. Well today, we’ll be looking at the meaning of some of those common acronyms and abbreviations we we use every day.. Stay tuned.
1) WIFI: This simply means “Wireless fidelity“
It is a technological inbuilt tool used to wirelessly connect two or more gadgets together.
For example; You can connect two phones together with the help of a WiFi. You can also connect your phone to a laptop or an internet provider through a WiFi.
The WiFi can be said to be the improved and upgraded version of the Bluetooth.
2) CCTV: This means “Closed Circuit Television”.
The CCTV can be described as a video surveillance system that monitors and transmits visual signals to a limited set of screens or monitor devices.
3) POS : Most of us use this machine on a daily basis without an idea of what it means. Well, POS Machine means “Point of sale”.
This is usually a small machine that helps in executing debits and credits through the use of an ATM card. The POS machine usually has a small screen where transactions are monitored.
4) ATM: Automated teller machine
This machine is always accessible through the use of an ATM card. Just like the POS machine, the ATM machine is also used to process monetary transactions (credit and debit)
5) DVD : Digital Versatile Disk
Even with the ever increasing demand for decoders, the DVD can still be found in many homes.
6) BVN: Bank verification number
This number can be used as a means of identification. It is very important that you keep your “Bank Verification Number” safe and secure as it can be used for fraudulent activities if not well safeguarded.
7) OTP: This means “One Time Password“
It is a security measure incase you are subject to theft or any form of fraudulent activities. The number or code sent to you is usually functional for about five minutes or more after which it becomes unable to use.
Pls do give out your OTP number to people you do not trust.
8) DATE: i bet many of us do not know that DATE in regards to time means “Day and time Evolution”. Well, now you know.
9) B. C: “Before Christ“. This is was the Era before the coming of Jesus Christ.
For example we could say that Moses was born in the year 19BC.
10) A.D: Just like the B. C, the A.D is also used to refer to an era. However, the AD means “Anno Dominni” which means “After death when translated in English.
For example ; The world is currently in the 21st century AD.
11) BCE : This means” Before Common Era“. The BCE is originally used as a substitute for the BC
12) CE: This means “Christian era” The CE is used as a substitute for the AD.
13) A. M: This means” Ante Meridiem. The AM is used to describe the early hours of a day.
14) P. M: “Post Meridiem“. The P. M is used to describe the late hours of the day.
13) DNA : Deoxyribo-nucleic Acid
14) BYE : Be with you Everytime
15) VIP : Very important person
16) NEWSPAPER : How many of us knows that the word newspaper is an acronym for “North, East, West, South Past and Present News“? I guess we all know now.
17)Sim card: Subscriber Identification Module
18) RAM: Random Access Memory
19) ROM: Read Only Memory
20) PIN: Personal identification number
21) POLICE: The word police can have many meanings, but let’s take a look at two of most acceptable meanings of Police.
* POLICE as a governmental institution means ” Protection of life and investigating Criminal Establishment“
* POLICE when referred to as individuals means ” Public officer for legal investigation and criminal Emergency “
22) SWAT: Special weapons and tactics
23) ECOWAS: Economic community for West African states.
24) ICU: Intensive Care Unit.
This is a section or ward in the hospital where critically I’ll patients are placed under aggressive monitoring.
25) NAFDAC: National Agency For Food and Drug administration
26) AIDS: Acquired immuno deficiency Syndrome
27) HIV: Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
28) EMAIL: Electronic mail
29) Gmail: Graphical mail
30) Google : Global Organization of Oriented Group Language of Earth
31) SMS: Short message service
32) 3D: Three dimensional
33) RSVP: Alot of Nigerians interprete this as “Rice Stew Very Plenty” which is obviously wrong given that the word RSVP is actually a French acronym ” Repondez S’ il vous plait“.
In English it means one should reply to an invitation. So pls try and get your mind off “Rice and stew very plenty” when next you see RSVP.
Source: Opera News Hub is the source of this very educative article.
The Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board(JAMB) is considering a new date for the commencement of the 2020 admissions processes from the earlier announced date of 22nd August 2020.
The Board would accordingly meet all the tertiary institutions today, 10th August 2020, to brainstorm on the possibility of shifting the commencement of admissions to a date that would better accommodate the vagaries of the COVID-19 pandemic.
JAMB made this known in its Weekly Bulletin made available to newsmen in Abuja on Sunday night.
Governor of Borno State, Prof. Babagana Umara Zulum on Wednesday unveiled a plan to remodel 76 Primary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council.
After assessing the rehabilitation of some Primary Schools in the State capital, Governor Babagana Umara Zulum said “The intention of this administration is to rehabilitate all the 76 existing Primary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council. Additional classrooms will be constructed where there’s need for it. We will furnish all classrooms, provide water facilities and ensure adequate qualified teachers. This should be our focus for the next one year.”
“In the meantime, we will first rehabilitate all the existing structures, ensure to provide a very good perimeter fence, provide water facilities, and furnish all the classrooms so that our schools will be habitable.” Zulum said.
The Governor noted that while building structures, Government will look into the manpower deficit in the education sector. He thereby announced a plan to employ 1000 teachers soon.
Among the thirteen (13) Primary Schools earmarked for rehabilitation in the first phase of Zulum’s initiative, the Governor visited three of them which include; Goni Damgari Primary School, Maimalari Barracks Primary School, and Mustapha Umar Elkanemi Integrated Qur’anic Model Primary School.
Meanwhile, Governor Zulum responding to the community request, has directed the Commissioner of Housing and Energy to immediately assess power problems in Goni Damgari for immediate response.
Additionally, the Governor has approved the construction of a new Primary Healthcare Center in Goni Damgari.
This according to the Governor, will increase access to healthcare service delivery.
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On the Relation Between Knowledge and Practice, Between Knowing and Doing
Before Marx, materialism examined the problem of knowledge apart from the social nature of man and apart from his historical development, and was therefore incapable of understanding the dependence of knowledge on social practice, that is, the dependence of knowledge on production and the class struggle.
Above all, Marxists regard man’s activity in production as the most fundamental practical activity, the determinant of all his other activities. Man’s knowledge depends mainly on his activity in material production, through which he comes gradually to understand the phenomena, the properties and the laws of nature, and the relations between himself and nature; and through his activity in production he also gradually comes to understand, in varying degrees, certain relations that exist between man and man. None of this knowledge can be acquired apart from activity in production. In a classless society every person, as a member of society, joins in common effort with the other members, enters into definite relations of production with them and engages in production to meet man’s material needs. In all class societies, the members of the different social classes also enter, in different ways, into definite relations of production and engage in production to meet their material needs. This is the primary source from which human knowledge develops.
Man’s social practice is not confined to activity in production, but takes many other forms–class struggle, political life, scientific and artistic pursuits; in short, as a social being, man participates in all spheres of the practical life of society. Thus man, in varying degrees, comes to know the different relations between man and man, not only through his material life but also through his political and cultural life (both of which are intimately bound up with material life). Of these other types of social practice, class struggle in particular, in all its various forms, exerts a profound influence on the development of man’s knowledge. In class society everyone lives as a member of a particular class, and every kind of thinking, without exception, is stamped with the brand of a class.
Marxists hold that in human society activity in production develops step by step from a lower to a higher level and that consequently man’s knowledge, whether of nature or of society, also develops step by step from a lower to a higher level, that is, from the shallower to the deeper, from the one-sided to the many-sided. For a very long period in history, men were necessarily confined to a one-sided understanding of the history of society because, for one thing, the bias of the exploiting classes always distorted history and, for another, the small scale of production limited man’s outlook. It was not until the modern proletariat emerged along with immense forces of production (large-scale industry) that man was able to acquire a comprehensive, historical understanding of the development of society and turn this knowledge into a science, the science of Marxism.
Marxists hold that man’s social practice alone is the criterion of the truth of his knowledge of the external world. What actually happens is that man’s knowledge is verified only when he achieves the anticipated results in the process of social practice (material production, class struggle or scientific experiment). If a man wants to succeed in his work, that is, to achieve the anticipated results, he must bring his ideas into correspondence with the laws of the objective external world; if they do not correspond, he will fail in his practice. After he fails, he draws his lessons, corrects his ideas to make them correspond to the laws of the external world, and can thus turn failure into success; this is what is meant by “failure is the mother of success” and “a fall into the pit, a gain in your wit”. The dialectical-materialist theory of knowledge places practice in the primary position, holding that human knowledge can in no way be separated from practice and repudiating all the erroneous theories which deny the importance of practice or separate knowledge from practice. Thus Lenin said, “Practice is higher than (theoretical) knowledge, for it has not only the dignity of universality, but also of immediate actuality.”  The Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism has two outstanding characteristics. One is its class nature: it openly avows that dialectical materialism is in the service of the proletariat. The other is its practicality: it emphasizes the dependence of theory on practice, emphasizes that theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. The truth of any knowledge or theory is determined not by subjective feelings, but by objective results in social practice. Only social practice can be the criterion of truth. The standpoint of practice is the primary and basic standpoint in the dialectical materialist theory of knowledge. 
But how then does human knowledge arise from practice and in turn serve practice? This will become clear if we look at the process of development of knowledge.
In the process of practice, man at first sees only the phenomenal side, the separate aspects, the external relations of things. For instance, some people from outside come to Yenan on a tour of observation. In the first day or two, they see its topography, streets and houses; they meet many people, attend banquets, evening parties and mass meetings, hear talk of various kinds and read various documents, all these being the phenomena, the separate aspects and the external relations of things. This is called the perceptual stage of cognition, namely, the stage of sense perceptions and impressions. That is, these particular things in Yenan act on the sense organs of the members of the observation group, evoke sense perceptions and give rise in their brains to many impressions together with a rough sketch of the external relations among these impressions: this is the first stage of cognition. At this stage, man cannot as yet form concepts, which are deeper, or draw logical conclusions.
As social practice continues, things that give rise to man’s sense perceptions and impressions in the course of his practice are repeated many times; then a sudden change (leap) takes place in the brain in the process of cognition, and concepts are formed. Concepts are no longer the phenomena, the separate aspects and the external relations of things; they grasp the essence, the totality and the internal relations of things. Between concepts and sense perceptions there is not only a quantitative but also a qualitative difference. Proceeding further, by means of judgement and inference one is able to draw logical conclusions. The expression in San Kuo Yen Yi,  “knit the brows and a stratagem comes to mind”, or in everyday language, “let me think it over”, refers to man’s use of concepts in the brain to form judgements and inferences. This is the second stage of cognition. When the members of the observation group have collected various data and, what is more, have “thought them over”, they are able to arrive at the judgement that “the Communist Party’s policy of the National United Front Against Japan is thorough, sincere and genuine”. Having made this judgement, they can, if they too are genuine about uniting to save the nation, go a step further and draw the following conclusion, “The National United Front Against Japan can succeed.” This stage of conception, judgement and inference is the more important stage in the entire process of knowing a thing; it is the stage of rational knowledge. The real task of knowing is, through perception, to arrive at thought, to arrive step by step at the comprehension of the internal contradictions of objective things, of their laws and of the internal relations between one process and another, that is, to arrive at logical knowledge. To repeat, logical knowledge differs from perceptual knowledge in that perceptual knowledge pertains to the separate aspects, the phenomena and the external relations of things, whereas logical knowledge takes a big stride forward to reach the totality, the essence and the internal relations of things and discloses the inner contradictions in the surrounding world. Therefore, logical knowledge is capable of grasping the development of the surrounding world in its totality, in the internal relations of all its aspects.
This dialectical-materialist theory of the process of development of knowledge, basing itself on practice and proceeding from the shallower to the deeper, was never worked out by anybody before the rise of Marxism. Marxist materialism solved this problem correctly for the first time, pointing out both materialistically and dialectically the deepening movement of cognition, the movement by which man in society progresses from perceptual knowledge to logical knowledge in his complex, constantly recurring practice of production and class struggle. Lenin said, “The abstraction of matter, of a law of nature, the abstraction of value, etc., in short, all scientific (correct, serious, not absurd) abstractions reflect nature more deeply, truly and completely.”  Marxism-Leninism holds that each of the two stages in the process of cognition has its own characteristics, with knowledge manifesting itself as perceptual at the lower stage and logical at the higher stage, but that both are stages in an integrated process of cognition. The perceptual and the rational are qualitatively different, but are not divorced from each other; they are unified on the basis of practice. Our practice proves that what is perceived cannot at once be comprehended and that only what is comprehended can be more deeply perceived. Perception only solves the problem of phenomena; theory alone can solve the problem of essence. The solving of both these problems is not separable in the slightest degree from practice. Whoever wants to know a thing has no way of doing so except by coming into contact with it, that is, by living (practicing) in its environment. In feudal society it was impossible to know the laws of capitalist society in advance because capitalism had not yet emerged, the relevant practice was lacking. Marxism could be the product only of capitalist society. Marx, in the era of laissez-faire capitalism, could not concretely know certain laws peculiar to the era of imperialism beforehand, because imperialism, the last stage of capitalism, had not yet emerged and the relevant practice was lacking; only Lenin and Stalin could undertake this task. Leaving aside their genius, the reason why Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin could work out their theories was mainly that they personally took part in the practice of the class struggle and the scientific experimentation of their time; lacking this condition, no genius could have succeeded. The saying, “without stepping outside his gate the scholar knows all the wide world’s affairs”, was mere empty talk in past times when technology was undeveloped. Even though this saying can be valid in the present age of developed technology, the people with real personal knowledge are those engaged in practice the wide world over. And it is only when these people have come to “know” through their practice and when their knowledge has reached him through writing and technical media that the “scholar” can indirectly “know all the wide world’s affairs”. If you want to know a certain thing or a certain class of things directly, you must personally participate in the practical struggle to change reality, to change that thing or class of things, for only thus can you come into contact with them as phenomena; only through personal participation in the practical struggle to change reality can you uncover the essence of that thing or class of things and comprehend them. This is the path to knowledge which every man actually travels, though some people, deliberately distorting matters, argue to the contrary. The most ridiculous person in the world is the “know all” who picks up a smattering of hearsay knowledge and proclaims himself “the world’s Number One authority”; this merely shows that he has not taken a proper measure of himself. Knowledge is a matter of science, and no dishonesty or conceit whatsoever is permissible. What is required is definitely the reverse–honesty and modesty. If you want knowledge, you must take part in the practice of changing reality. If you want to know the taste of a pear, you must change the pear by eating it yourself. If you want to know the structure and properties of the atom, you must make physical and chemical experiments to change the state of the atom. If you want to know the theory and methods of revolution, you must take part in revolution. All genuine knowledge originates in direct experience. But one cannot have direct experience of everything; as a matter of fact, most of our knowledge comes from indirect experience, for example, all knowledge from past times and foreign lands. To our ancestors and to foreigners, such knowledge was–or is–a matter of direct experience, and this knowledge is reliable if in the course of their direct experience the requirement of “scientific abstraction”, spoken of by Lenin, was–or is–fulfilled and objective reality scientifically reflected, otherwise it is not reliable. Hence a man’s knowledge consists only of two parts, that which comes from direct experience and that which comes from indirect experience. Moreover, what is indirect experience for me is direct experience for other people. Consequently, considered as a whole, knowledge of any kind is inseparable from direct experience. All knowledge originates in perception of the objective external world through man’s physical sense organs. Anyone who denies such perception, denies direct experience, or denies personal participation in the practice that changes reality, is not a materialist. That is why the “know-all” is ridiculous. There is an old Chinese saying, “How can you catch tiger cubs without entering the tiger’s lair?” This saying holds true for man’s practice and it also holds true for the theory of knowledge. There can be no knowledge apart from practice.
To make clear the dialectical-materialist movement of cognition arising on the basis of the practice which changes reality–to make clear the gradually deepening movement of cognition–a few additional concrete examples are given below.
In its knowledge of capitalist society, the proletariat was only in the perceptual stage of cognition in the first period of its practice, the period of machine-smashing and spontaneous struggle; it knew only some of the aspects and the external relations of the phenomena of capitalism. The proletariat was then still a “class-in-itself”. But when it reached the second period of its practice, the period of conscious and organized economic and political struggles, the proletariat was able to comprehend the essence of capitalist society, the relations of exploitation between social classes and its own historical task; and it was able to do so because of its own practice and because of its experience of prolonged struggle, which Marx and Engels scientifically summed up in all its variety to create the theory of Marxism for the education of the proletariat. It was then that the proletariat became a “class-for-itself”.
Similarly with the Chinese people’s knowledge of imperialism. The first stage was one of superficial, perceptual knowledge, as shown in the indiscriminate anti-foreign struggles of the Movement of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Yi Ho Tuan Movement, and so on. It was only in the second stage that the Chinese people reached the stage of rational knowledge, saw the internal and external contradictions of imperialism and saw the essential truth that imperialism had allied itself with China’s comprador and feudal classes to oppress and exploit the great masses of the Chinese people. This knowledge began about the time of the May 4th Movement of 1919.
Next, let us consider war. If those who lead a war lack experience of war, then at the initial stage they will not understand the profound laws pertaining to the directing of a specific war (such as our Agrarian Revolutionary War of the past decade). At the initial stage they will merely experience a good deal of fighting and, what is more, suffer many defeats. But this experience (the experience of battles won and especially of battles lost) enables them to comprehend the inner thread of the whole war, namely, the laws of that specific war, to understand its strategy and tactics, and consequently to direct the war with confidence. If, at such a moment, the command is turned over to an inexperienced person, then he too will have to suffer a number of defeats (gain experience) before he can comprehend the true laws of the war.
“I am not sure I can handle it.” We often hear this remark when a comrade hesitates to accept an assignment. Why is he unsure of himself? Because he has no systematic understanding of the content and circumstances of the assignment, or because he has had little or no contact with such work, and so the laws governing it are beyond him. After a detailed analysis of the nature and circumstances of the assignment, he will feel more sure of himself and do it willingly. If he spends some time at the job and gains experience and if he is a person who is willing to look into matters with an open mind and not one who approaches problems subjectively, one-sidedly and superficially, then he can draw conclusions for himself as to how to go about the job and do it with much more courage. Only those who are subjective, one-sided and superficial in their approach to problems will smugly issue orders or directives the moment they arrive on the scene, without considering the circumstances, without viewing things in their totality (their history and their present state as a whole) and without getting to the essence of things (their nature and the internal relations between one thing and another). Such people are bound to trip and fall.
Thus it can be seen that the first step in the process of cognition is contact with the objects of the external world; this belongs to the stage of perception. The second step is to synthesize the data of perception by arranging and reconstructing them; this belongs to the stage of conception, judgement and inference. It is only when the data of perception are very rich (not fragmentary) and correspond to reality (are not illusory) that they can be the basis for forming correct concepts and theories.
Here two important points must be emphasized. The first, which has been stated before but should be repeated here, is the dependence of rational knowledge upon perceptual knowledge. Anyone who thinks that rational knowledge need not be derived from perceptual knowledge is an idealist. In the history of philosophy there is the “rationalist” school that admits the reality only of reason and not of experience, believing that reason alone is reliable while perceptual experience is not; this school errs by turning things upside down. The rational is reliable precisely because it has its source in sense perceptions, other wise it would be like water without a source, a tree without roots, subjective, self-engendered and unreliable. As to the sequence in the process of cognition, perceptual experience comes first; we stress the significance of social practice in the process of cognition precisely because social practice alone can give rise to human knowledge and it alone can start man on the acquisition of perceptual experience from the objective world. For a person who shuts his eyes, stops his ears and totally cuts himself off from the objective world there can be no such thing as knowledge. Knowledge begins with experience–this is the materialism of the theory of knowledge.
The second point is that knowledge needs to be deepened, that the perceptual stage of knowledge needs to be developed to the rational stage–this is the dialectics of the theory of knowledge.  To think that knowledge can stop at the lower, perceptual stage and that perceptual knowledge alone is reliable while rational knowledge is not, would be to repeat the historical error of “empiricism”. This theory errs in failing to understand that, although the data of perception reflect certain realities in the objective world (I am not speaking here of idealist empiricism which confines experience to so-called introspection), they are merely one-sided and superficial, reflecting things incompletely and not reflecting their essence. Fully to reflect a thing in its totality, to reflect its essence, to reflect its inherent laws, it is necessary through the exercise of thought to reconstruct the rich data of sense perception, discarding the dross and selecting the essential, eliminating the false and retaining the true, proceeding from the one to the other and from the outside to the inside, in order to form a system of concepts and theories–it is necessary to make a leap from perceptual to rational knowledge. Such reconstructed knowledge is not more empty or more unreliable; on the contrary, whatever has been scientifically reconstructed in the process of cognition, on the basis of practice, reflects objective reality, as Lenin said, more deeply, more truly, more fully. As against this, vulgar “practical men” respect experience but despise theory, and therefore cannot have a comprehensive view of an entire objective process, lack clear direction and long-range perspective, and are complacent over occasional successes and glimpses of the truth. If such persons direct a revolution, they will lead it up a blind alley.
Rational knowledge depends upon perceptual knowledge and perceptual knowledge remains to be developed into rational knowledge– this is the dialectical-materialist theory of knowledge. In philosophy, neither “rationalism” nor “empiricism” understands the historical or the dialectical nature of knowledge, and although each of these schools contains one aspect of the truth (here I am referring to materialist, not to idealist, rationalism and empiricism), both are wrong on the theory of knowledge as a whole. The dialectical-materialist movement of knowledge from the perceptual to the rational holds true for a minor process of cognition (for instance, knowing a single thing or task) as well as for a major process of cognition (for instance, knowing a whole society or a revolution).
But the movement of knowledge does not end here. If the dialectical-materialist movement of knowledge were to stop at rational knowledge, only half the problem would be dealt with. And as far as Marxist philosophy is concerned, only the less important half at that. Marxist philosophy holds that the most important problem does not lie in understanding the laws of the objective world and thus being able to explain it, but in applying the knowledge of these laws actively to change the world. From the Marxist viewpoint, theory is important, and its importance is fully expressed in Lenin’s statement, “Without revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement.”  But Marxism emphasizes the importance of theory precisely and only because it can guide action. If we have a correct theory but merely prate about it, pigeonhole it and do not put it into practice, then that theory, however good, is of no significance. Knowledge begins with practice, and theoretical knowledge is acquired through practice and must then return to practice. The active function of knowledge manifests itself not only in the active leap from perceptual to rational knowledge, but–and this is more important–it must manifest itself in the leap from rational knowledge to revolutionary practice. The knowledge which grasps the laws of the world, must be redirected to the practice of changing the world, must be applied anew in the practice of production, in the practice of revolutionary class struggle and revolutionary national struggle and in the practice of scientific experiment. This is the process of testing and developing theory, the continuation of the whole process of cognition. The problem of whether theory corresponds to objective reality is not, and cannot be, completely solved in the movement of knowledge from the perceptual to the rational, mentioned above. The only way to solve this problem completely is to redirect rational knowledge to social practice, apply theory to practice and see whether it can achieve the objectives one has in mind. Many theories of natural science are held to be true not only because they were so considered when natural scientists originated them, but because they have been verified in subsequent scientific practice. Similarly, Marxism-Leninism is held to be true not only because it was so considered when it was scientifically formulated by Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin but because it has been verified in the subsequent practice of revolutionary class struggle and revolutionary national struggle. Dialectical materialism is universally true because it is impossible for anyone to escape from its domain in his practice. The history of human knowledge tells us that the truth of many theories is incomplete and that this incompleteness is remedied through the test of practice. Many theories are erroneous and it is through the test of practice that their errors are corrected. That is why practice is the criterion of truth and why “the standpoint of life, of practice, should be first and fundamental in the theory of knowledge”.  Stalin has well said, “Theory becomes purposeless if it is not connected with revolutionary practice, just as practice gropes in the dark if its path is not illumined by revolutionary theory.” 
When we get to this point, is the movement of knowledge completed? Our answer is: it is and yet it is not. When men in society throw themselves into the practice of changing a certain objective process (whether natural or social) at a certain stage of its development, they can, as a result of the reflection of the objective process in their brains and the exercise of their subjective activity, advance their knowledge from the perceptual to the rational, and create ideas, theories, plans or programmes which correspond in general to the laws of that objective process. They then apply these ideas, theories, plans or programmes in practice in the same objective process. And if they can realize the aims they have in mind, that is, if in that same process of practice they can translate, or on the whole translate, those previously formulated ideas, theories, plans or programmes into fact, then the movement of knowledge may be considered completed with regard to this particular process. In the process of changing nature, take for example the fulfilment of an engineering plan, the verification of a scientific hypothesis, the manufacture of an implement or the reaping of a crop; or in the process of changing society, take for example the victory of a strike, victory in a war or the fulfilment of an educational plan. All these may be considered the realization of aims one has in mind. But generally speaking, whether in the practice of changing nature or of changing society, men’s original ideas, theories, plans or programmes are seldom realized without any alteration.
This is because people engaged in changing reality are usually subject to numerous limitations; they are limited not only by existing scientific and technological conditions but also by the development of the objective process itself and the degree to which this process has become manifest (the aspects and the essence of the objective process have not yet been fully revealed). In such a situation, ideas, theories, plans or programmes are usually altered partially and sometimes even wholly, because of the discovery of unforeseen circumstances in the course of practice. That is to say, it does happen that the original ideas, theories, plans or programmes fail to correspond with reality either in whole or in part and are wholly or partially incorrect. In many instances, failures have to be repeated many times before errors In knowledge can be corrected and correspondence with the laws of the objective process achieved, and consequently before the subjective can be transformed into the objective, or in other words, before the anticipated results can be achieved in practice. But when that point is reached, no matter how, the movement of human knowledge regarding a certain objective process at a certain stage of its development may be considered completed.
However, so far as the progression of the process is concerned, the movement of human knowledge is not completed. Every process, whether in the realm of nature or of society, progresses and develops by reason of its internal contradiction and struggle, and the movement of human knowledge should also progress and develop along with it. As far as social movements are concerned, true revolutionary leaders must not only be good at correcting their ideas, theories, plans or programmes when errors are discovered, as has been indicated above; but when a certain objective process has already progressed and changed from one stage of development to another, they must also be good at making themselves and all their fellow-revolutionaries progress and change in their subjective knowledge along with it, that IS to say, they must ensure that the proposed new revolutionary tasks and new working programmes correspond to the new changes in the situation. In a revolutionary period the situation changes very rapidly; if the knowledge of revolutionaries does not change rapidly in accordance with the changed situation, they will be unable to lead the revolution to victory.
It often happens, however, that thinking lags behind reality; this is because man’s cognition is limited by numerous social conditions. We are opposed to die-herds in the revolutionary ranks whose thinking fails to advance with changing objective circumstances and has manifested itself historically as Right opportunism. These people fail to see that the struggle of opposites has already pushed the objective process forward while their knowledge has stopped at the old stage. This is characteristic of the thinking of all die-herds. Their thinking is divorced from social practice, and they cannot march ahead to guide the chariot of society; they simply trail behind, grumbling that it goes too fast and trying to drag it back or turn it in the opposite direction.
We are also opposed to “Left” phrase-mongering. The thinking of “Leftists” outstrips a given stage of development of the objective process; some regard their fantasies as truth, while others strain to realize in the present an ideal which can only be realized in the future. They alienate themselves from the current practice of the majority of the people and from the realities of the day, and show themselves adventurist in their actions.
Idealism and mechanical materialism, opportunism and adventurism, are all characterized by the breach between the subjective and the objective, by the separation of knowledge from practice. The Marxist-Leninist theory of knowledge, characterized as it is by scientific social practice, cannot but resolutely oppose these wrong ideologies. Marxists recognize that in the absolute and general process of development of the universe, the development of each particular process is relative, and that hence, in the endless flow of absolute truth, man’s knowledge of a particular process at any given stage of development is only relative truth. The sum total of innumerable relative truths constitutes absolute truth.  The development of an objective process is full of contradictions and struggles, and so is the development of the movement of human knowledge. All the dialectical movements of the objective world can sooner or later be reflected in human knowledge. In social practice, the process of coming into being, developing and passing away is infinite, and so is the process of coming into being, developing and passing away in human knowledge. As man’s practice which changes objective reality in accordance with given ideas, theories, plans or programmes, advances further and further, his knowledge of objective reality likewise becomes deeper and deeper. The movement of change in the world of objective reality is never-ending and so is man’s cognition of truth through practice. Marxism-Leninism has in no way exhausted truth but ceaselessly opens up roads to the knowledge of truth in the course of practice. Our conclusion is the concrete, historical unity of the subjective and the objective, of theory and practice, of knowing ant doing, and we are opposed to all erroneous ideologies, whether “Left” or Right, which depart from concrete history.
In the present epoch of the development of society, the responsibility of correctly knowing and changing the world has been placed by history upon the shoulders of the proletariat and its party. This process, the practice of changing the world, which is determined in accordance with scientific knowledge, has already reached a historic moment in the world and in China, a great moment unprecedented in human history, that is, the moment for completely banishing darkness from the world and from China and for changing the world into a world of light such as never previously existed. The struggle of the proletariat and the revolutionary people to change the world comprises the fulfilment of the following tasks: to change the objective world and, at the same time, their own subjective world–to change their cognitive ability and change the relations between the subjective and the objective world. Such a change has already come about in one part of the globe, in the Soviet Union. There the people are pushing forward this process of change. The people of China and the rest of the world either are going through, or will go through, such a process. And the objective world which is to be changed also includes all the opponents of change, who, in order to be changed, must go through a stage of compulsion before they can enter the stage of voluntary, conscious change. The epoch of world communism will be reached when all mankind voluntarily and consciously changes itself and the world.
Discover the truth through practice, and again through practice verify and develop the truth. Start from perceptual knowledge and actively develop it into rational knowledge; then start from rational knowledge and actively guide revolutionary practice to change both the subjective and the objective world. Practice, knowledge, again practice, and again knowledge. This form repeats itself in endless cycles, and with each cycle the content of practice and knowledge rises to a higher level. Such is the whole of the dialectical-materialist theory of knowledge, and such is the dialectical-materialist theory of the unity of knowing and doing.
The ideas contained in this essay were presented by Comrade Mao Tse-tung in a lecture at the Anti-Japanese Military and Political College in Yenan.
I was just passing in Unguwan Jaki, a very busy and one of the business trending streets in Bauchi Metropolis when I heard some youths shouting and arguing heavily on politics in Nigeria. They were about ten, mostly within the age bracket of 30 – 35, sitting in front of one big Printing Press and engaged in a very hot argument about the present administration.
I don’t normally involve myself in unnecessary arguments about political issues in Nigeria, but when I heard one of the youth shouting that someone should tell him ONLY THREE achievements recorded by President Muhammadu Buhari in his five years in office, I felt something like a blow in my head. I quickly stopped and turned around to join the discussion.
I moved closer and greeted them, find a place aside and sat down. The young guy were still standing, looking so frustrated and angered. He kept repeating the same request for three achievements but nobody could respond to him. I quickly chipped in and said “I can mention a hundred and plus achievements for you Sir” .
He turned his head around and with a glaring look said to me “go ahead I am all ears”. I said, I have a plead to make please before we start. “What is it? Say it I am listening. He said in a more angry manner.
“I want you to calm down first so that we can understand each other, and also want you to get a pen and paper in order to jot the points I am about to mention” I said, without looking at him. He bursed into big laugher and asked someone to bring pen and jotter for him.
I asked him to mention any sector that he feels President Buhari has not done anything, so that we can start. He then started to shout loud, “what did he do in all the sectors? This man has failed Nigerians in all ramifications. He promised to pay all pension arrears of Federal Civil Servants during his campaign, he promised to make electricity stable, he promised this and promised that….
As soon as he reached a full stop, I began to respond to him as follows; while he writes the points and other people listen with keen interest.
PENSIONS: In January 2019, President Buhari launched Nigeria’s Micro Pension Scheme – which allows self-employed persons and persons working in organisations with less than 3 employees to save for the provision of pension at retirement or incapacitation. The Buhari Administration is prioritizing the payment of pension arrears owed staff of current and privatized/defunct Federal agencies:
A total of 54 Billion Naira was released to settle outstanding 33% pension arrears (the 33% pension arrears date back to 2010 when the minimum wage was increased to N18,000).
Delta Steel Company (liquidated in 2005): 3,542 pensioners have now been placed on the payroll, ending a 13-year wait for their entitlements.
NITEL: Another 9,216 pensioners were payrolled, after more than a decade of neglect by the previous administration.
Retired Biafran Police Officers (dismissed by the Federal Government in 1971, after the Civil War ended, and pardoned by President Obasanjo in 2000): President Buhari approved the payment of the pensions, unpaid since their pardon in 2000. N571.56 million was paid to a total of 174 beneficiaries in October 2017
Nigeria Airways: President Buhari approved the release of N24 billion in September 2018, for the settlement of 50% of workers disengaged when the airline was liquidated in 2003/4.
Recoveries: The Pension Transitional Arrangement Directorate (PTAD) has recovered cash and non-cash assets totaling N16 billion previously trapped in various insurance companies and underwriters managing the pension funds of Federal Parastatals and Universities.
AGRICULTURE: The Anchor Borrowers Programme (ABP) of the Central Bank of Nigeria, launched by President Muhammadu Buhari on November 17, 2015, has made available more than 200 billion Naira in funding to more than 1.5 million smallholder farmers of 16 different commodities (Rice, Wheat, Maize, Cotton, Cassava, Poultry, Soy Beans, Groundnut, Fish), cultivating over 1.4 million hectares of farmland.
The ABP has substantially raised local production of rice, doubling the production of paddy as well as milled rice between 2015 and 2019.
Between 2016 and 2019, more than 10 new rice mills came on-stream in Nigeria. Many of the existing Mills have expanded their capacity; several new ones are under construction.
More than a billion dollars of private sector investments in the production of Rice, Wheat, Sugar, Poultry, Animal Feed, Fertilizers, etc, since 2015.
Federal Executive Council approval (2020) for a National Agriculture Mechanization Programme, “the Green Imperative”, in partnership with the Government of Brazil and multilateral financing institutions.
The Presidential Fertilizer Initiative: Launched in January 2017, as a Government-to-Government agreement with the Kingdom of Morocco More than a million metric tonnes of fertilizer produced since 2017. This translated to distribution of more than 18 million 50kg bags of NPK fertilizer in the first three years of the PFI)
22 blending plants resuscitated (combined installed capacity of more than 2.5m MT) Price reduction from 9,000-11,000 per bag, to 5,500 FX savings of $150m annually through the substitution of imported components with locally manufactured ones Subsidy savings of 50 billion Naira annually.
A total of 100,000 youths were trained across the 36 states and FCT under the Fadama Graduate Unemployed Youths and Women Support (GUYS) and have received free grants from N300,000 to One Million in order to establish different Agribusinesses.
Presently, N50 Billion loan has being distributed across households to support their living and all SMEs affected by the Covid 19 Pandemic.
AGMEIS Loan scheme is currently on going with a bid to target more than 500,000 Small and Micro Enterprises across the country in order to enhance their production capacity.
President Muhammadu Buhari’s Policies on trade and investment attracted;
WACOT (Largest Rice Mill In Africa) KEBBI STATE
OLAM (largest Feed Mill In Africa), KADUNA STATE
SUNTI (Largest Sugar Company In Africa), NIGER STATE
INFRASTRUCTURE: The Buhari Administration has demonstrated a single-minded commitment to upgrading and developing Nigeria’s Transport, Power and Health Infrastructure. Three major rail projects inherited from previous administrations have been completed and commissioned: Abuja Metro Rail and the Abuja-Kaduna Rail, and the 327km Itakpe-Ajaokuta-Warri Rail, started in 1987, have been completed in 2020.
A fourth Rail Project, the Lagos-Ibadan Rail Project, kicked off in 2017, and is due to be completed in 2020. The tracklaying for the main component of the project was completed in March 2020.
In May 2018, the Federal Government launched the Presidential Infrastructure Development Fund (PIDF), under the management of the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority.
The PIDF kicked off with seed funding of US$650 million, and has already disbursed funds for three critical road projects: Second Niger Bridge, Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, and the Abuja-Kaduna-Zaria-Kano Expressway.
Nigeria Sovereign Investment Authority (NSIA) in March 2018 invested US$11m to establish a world-class Cancer Treatment Center at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), which commenced operations in 2019.
Work is ongoing on two US$5m Diagnostic Centers in the Aminu Kano University Teaching Hospital and the Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia.
Abuja’s Light Rail system has been completed; it connects the city center with the Airport, and the Abuja-Kaduna Railway Line.
New Abuja and Port Harcourt International Airport Terminals completed, in Q4 2018.
New Lagos and Kano International Airport Terminals scheduled for completion in 2020. All were inherited from the previous administration at various stages of completion, and in some cases required project redesign and revision.
The Buhari Administration successfully completed the reconstruction of the Abuja Airport runway within the scheduled six-week period (March – April 2017), and will complete the reconstruction of the Enugu International Airport Runway in 2020.
The following Water Supply Projects and Dam/Irrigation Projects have been completed by the Buhari Administration:
Central Ogbia Regional Water Project, in Bayelsa
Sabke/Dutsi/Mashi Water Supply Project, in Katsina
Northern Ishan Regional Water Supply Project, serving Ugboha and Uromi communities of Edo State.
Kashimbila Dam, Taraba State
Ogwashi-Uku Dam, Delta State (Actual Dam completed and reservoir “impounded” in 2016; also spillway discharge channel completed).
Shagari Dam Irrigation Project, Sokoto State
Mangu Dam and Regional Water Supply Scheme in Plateau State
Completion of Phase 1 of Galma Dam, Kaduna
Rehabilitation of Ojirami Dam Water Supply Project, Edo State
The 25 Road Projects being funded by the Sukuk Bonds:
Construction of Oju/Loko–Oweto bridge over River Benue to link Loko (Nasarawa state) and Oweto (Benue state) along route F2384
Dualisation of Abuja–Abaji–Lokoja Road section I (International Airport link road junction–Sheda Village)
Dualisation of Suleja–Minna Road in Niger State Phase II (km 40+000-km101+000)
Dualisation of Abuja–Abaji–Lokoja Road: Section IV Koton Karfe–Lokoja in Kogi State
Dualisation of Lokoja-Benin Road: Obajana–Okene in Kogi State
Dualisation of Kano–Maiduguri Road linking Kano–Jigawa–Bauchi–Yobe
Dualisation of Kano–Maiduguri Road linking Kano–Jigawa–Bauchi–Yobe–Borno States. Section III (Azare–Potiskum) in Bauchi
Dualisation of Kano–Maiduguri Road linking Kano–Jigawa–Bauchi–Yobe–Borno States. Section IV (Potiskum–Damaturu road) in Yobe
Dualisation of Kano–Maiduguri Road linking Kano–Jigawa–Bauchi–Yobe–Borno States. Section V (Damaturu–Maiduguri)
Dualisation of Kano–Maiduguri Road linking Kano–Jigawa–Bauchi–Yobe–Borno States. Section I (Kano–Wudil–Shuari) in Kano
Dualisation of Kano–Katsina Road Phase I, Kano Town at Dawanau roundabout to Katsina border in Kano
Construction of Kano Western Bypass as an extension of dualisation of Kano–Maiduguri Road Section I
Construction of Kaduna Eastern Bypass
Rehabilitation of outstanding section of Onitsha–Enugu Expressway: Amansea–Enugu border
Rehabilitation of Enugu–Port Harcourt dual-carriage Section I: Lokpanta–Umuahia in Abia
Rehabilitation of Enugu–Port Harcourt dual-carriage Section II Umuahia tower–Aba Township Rail
Rehabilitation of Enugu–Port Harcourt Road Section III: Enugu–Lokpanta
Rehabilitation of Enugu–Port Harcourt Road Section IV: Aba–Port Harcourt in Rivers
Dualisation of Yenegwe Road Junction–Kolo–Otuoke–Bayelsa Palm in Bayelsa
Dualisation of Lokoja–Benin Road: Obajana Junction–Benin Section II Phase I: Okene–Auchi, Kogi/Edo states
Dualisation of Lokoja–Benin Road: Obajana Junction–Benin Section III Phase I: Auchi–Ehor in Edo
Dualisation of Lokoja-Benin Road: Obajana junction–Benin Section IV Phase I: Ehor–Benin City, Edo state
Reconstruction and asphalt overlay of Benin–Ofosu–Ore–Ajebandele–Shagamu dual-carriage Phase IV
Reconstruction of outstanding section of sections of Benin–Ofusu–Ore–Ajebandele–Shagamu dual-carriage Phase III
Dualisation of Ibadan–Ilorin Road. Section II: Oyo–Ogbomosho Road in Oyo.
Second Niger Bridge
Loko-Oweto Bridge (Nasarawa-Benue and south east.
Baro Inland water Port
Kaduna Dry Port
Eastern Port (Delta)
Bony Bridge and Road, Rivers State -15 Fertilizer Plants Revived
Northeast Development Commission
FEDERAL HIGHWAYS ROADS:
Lagos- Sagamu- Ibadan Expressways
New Abuja Airport Runway and Terminal
Enugu-Port Harcourt Expressway
Abuja – Kerffi – Lafia – Makurdi Expressway
Enugu – Onitsha Road
POWER SECTOR: The Federal Government’s Energizing Economies Programme is a public-private partnership led by the Rural Electrification Agency (REA), to deliver stable power supply to markets and economic clusters across the country.
The initial phase is ongoing in Ariaria Market in Aba, Abia State (32,000 shops), Sura Shopping Complex in Lagos (1,000 shops), Shomolu Printing Community in Lagos (4,000 shops) and the Sabon Gari Market in Kano (12,000 shops). The Sura Shopping Complex project was completed in August 2018, and commissioned by Vice President Yemi Osinbajo in October 2018.
Launch of a 1.3 Trillion Naira Payment Assurance Programme designed to resolve the liquidity challenges in the Power Sector by guaranteeing payments to Generating Companies and Gas Suppliers.
Implementation of a Willing Buyer, Willing Seller Policy for the power sector, which has opened up opportunities for increased delivery of electricity to homes and industries.
The Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) has also recently issued an Order capping estimated billing by DisCos. More than 90 Transmission Projects completed or ongoing since 2016.
DAMS AND POWER PLANTS:
Dadin Kowa Power Plant Gombe
Kashimbilla Hydro Power Plant(Completed)
Mambilla Hydro Power Plant(Awarded)
Independent Power Supply to Ariaria Market, Aba, Abia State
Independent Power Supply to Sabon Gari Market, Kano State
Independent Power Plan Sura Shopping Complex, Lagos
Independent Power Plants for 37 Universities Independent Power Plants for 7 Teaching Hospitals
Oil Exploration in Bauchi
Over 200Bn released for Universities (1st in History)
EDUCATION: Grants and Disbursements: The Federal Government has disbursed more than 170 billion Naira in UBE Matching Grants to States and the FCT since 2015, 8 billion Naira in Special Education Grant to States and private providers of Special Education, and 34 billion Naira from the Teachers Professional Development Fund to States and the FCT.
A sum of 200 billon naira released to Universities in Nigeria using TETFUND
President Buhari has also established the following:
Federal Maritime University, in Delta State
Nigerian Army University Biu, in Borno State
University of Agriculture, Zuru, Kebbi State
University of Transportation, Daura, Katsina State
Airforce University, Tafawa Balewa, Bauchi State
The administration has also established NEW FEDERAL COLLEGES OF EDUCATION in;
Federal Polytechnic, Daura
Transfer of Almajiri Schools built by the previous administration to State Governments and credible Scholars of Islamic Education, for efficient administration and impact.
Grants to State Governments: A minimum of $2.5 million disbursed to each State of the Federation and the FCT, under the Saving One Million Lives (SOML) initiative, to improve health outcomes.
Basic Health Care Provision Fund (BHCPF): For the first time since the National Health Act was passed in 2014, the Federal Government included the 1% minimum portion of the Consolidated Revenue Fund – amounting to 55 billion Naira – in the 2018 budget, to fund the Basic Health Care Provision Fund (BHCPF). The Fund is designed to deliver a guaranteed set health services to all Nigerians, through the national network of Primary Health Care centers.
Passage of Enabling Legislation for the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC), for the first time since it was founded in 2011. President Buhari approved a grant of 5 billion Naira for the NCDC in March 2020.
Tertiary Healthcare Upgrade Programme: A number of key Federal Hospitals across the country are being upgraded to effectively manage cancer and other major health challenges. Cancer Radiotherapy machines and other equipment are being provided to these hospitals. The National Hospital in Abuja has already received two LINAC (cancer treatment) machines.
Also established the following Health Care Institutions;
Airforce Referral Hospital, Daura
Nigerian Airforce Base Stand Hospital Bauchi
Women and Children Hospital, Daura
44 Military Hospital, Kaduna
National Cancer Center, Abuja
Cancer Center at the University Teaching Hospital, UniLag, Lagos
FINANCIAL BAILOUT TO STATES: President Muhammadu buhari bailed out 27 Governors and their states with finances running in billons of dollars.
AVIATION INDUSTRY: -New Abuja Airport Terminal
New Lagos Airport Terminal
Port Harcourt Airport Terminal
Enugu Airport Terminal
Abuja Metro Train
Abuja – Kaduna Train
Itakpe (KOGI state) -Warri (DELTA state)
Lagos – Abeokuta (OGUN)
Abeokuta (OGUN) – Ibadan (OYO)
Lagos – Kaduna Cargo Train
Train Assembly Plan, OGUN
Lagos-Kaduna Cargo Train
SOCIAL INVESTMENT PROGRAMS: President Muhammadu buhari Made It Possible:
N30,000 Minimum Wage for all workers
N30,000 for 500,000 Npower beneficiaries
School Feeding Program
Buhari Young Farmers
WATER SUPPLY AND DAM/IRRIGATION PROJECTS: -Central Ogbia Regional Water Project,Bayelsa -Sabke/Dutsi/Mashi Water Supply Project, Katsina -Kashimbila Dam, TarabaState -Ogwashi-Uku Dam, Delta State -Shagari Dam Irrigation Project, Sokoto State,
HOUSING SECTOR: -10,000 estate housing across each 36 states
Buhari Quarter housing scheme across the 36 states.
As I was busy mentioning these achievements, the guy was already tired of writing. I stopped and ask why he was not writing. He said he was tired, his fingers were paining him, that I should allow him take some rest and we continue tomorrow.
I said, ok no problem but let me mention this point before I forget. I then catsh his right ear and whispered to him, that President Buhari has yesterday Flagged Off a $2.8 billion Ajaokuta-Kaduna-Kano Gas Pipeline Project, which is said to be the largest of its kind in the nation.
“The AKK project is a section of the trans-Nigeria gas pipeline with a capacity to transport 2.2 billion cubic feet of gas per day and will be fed from the existing domestic gas infrastructure”, I added. The guy just fainted. It took the intervention of his colleagues who poured water on him before he could regain consciousness.
He looked at me with a relaxed mind and said, “My brother PMB has really achieved a lot in this five years, only that many people do not know, because free money is not flowing into their pockets”. His friends were surprised that he became speechless at the end. We shook hands and bid each other farewell.
The Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF), the Federal Government agency with the mandate of developing indigenous human capacity and petroleum technology to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry, invites applications from suitably qualified candidates for Overseas MSc and PhD Scholarships to institutions under its UK strategic partnership initiative. Successful candidates will be awarded scholarships to study in UK commencing in the 2020/2021 academic session.
Under this scheme, candidates are invited to apply through PTDF to specific programmes at the partner institutions in any of the countries (full list of sponsored courses is available on our website www.ptdf.gov.ngandscholarship.ptdf.gov.ng). The award includes the provision of flight tickets, payment of health insurance, payment of tuition and bench fees (where applicable) as well as the provision of allowances to meet the costs of accommodation and living expenses.
PTDF scholarships are highly competitive and only candidates who are outstanding across board are selected. A selection committee will be constituted to assess applications using the following criteria;
Academic merit as evidenced by quality of degrees, full academic transcripts, other professional qualifications acquired, and relevant publications to be referenced by applicants
Membership of professional bodies
The viability of the study/research plan.
Applicants are required to make a case for their scholarship by submitting a statement of purpose (maximum 500 words) stating the reason(s) they want to undertake the study, the relevance of the proposed study to the oil & gas industry and its expected impact on national development.
A minimum of Second Class Upper (2.1) qualification in their first degree or a Second Class Lower (2.2) with relevant industry experience
Must have completed the mandatory National Youth Service (NYSC)
Must be computer literate
Possession of 5 O/level credits including Mathematics and English Language.
Must have completed the mandatory National Youth Service (NYSC)
Must be computer literate
A minimum of Second Class Lower (2.2) in their first degree and a good second-degree certificate;
Must submit a research proposal relevant to the oil and gas industry (of not more than 5 pages) to include: Topic, introduction, objective, methodology and mode of data collection (sample template of the proposal is available on our Scholarship Management Portal scholarship.ptdf.gov.ng);
Applicants must also include their master’s degree project
Applicants are advised to scan copies of the following documents and upload to their online application:
First Degree Certificate or Statement of Result
NYSC discharge certificate
Local Government Identification Letter
Master’s Degree Certificate (PhD Applicants only)
Evidence of membership of professional associations
Applicants must have a National Identity Number (NIN) before applying for the scholarship. Applicants are also expected to verify their NIN before completing the application. (charges may apply).
Ongoing PhD Candidates could only apply provided their Universities are among the PTDF Partnership Universities as listed above;
Candidates who have benefitted from any of the PTDF scholarships in the past cannot apply for the same type of programme, except a higher programme;
Candidates who are in possession of a higher degree cannot apply for the same type of programme
Candidates who are beneficiaries of any other scholarship need not apply;
Candidates who successfully scale through the first round of screening will be requested to submit their transcripts; all applicants are therefore advised to prepare their transcripts for submission in anticipation of such a request.
PLEASE NOTE THAT THE CLOSING DATE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 17th February 2020.
The Oyo State COVID-19 Task Force announced on Monday 15th June, 2020 that it has relaxed the curfew imposed on the state following the advent of the ravaging Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19).
The Task Force, which made the decision public after a two-and-a-half-hour meeting and deliberation presided over by its chairman, Governor Seyi Makinde, added that the curfew would now run from 10pm to 4am.
A statement by the Chief Press Secretary to Governor Makinde, Mr. Taiwo Adisa, confirmed that other decisions reached include the resumption of classes for Primary Six (6), JSS3 and SS3 students from Monday, June 29;
The statement indicated that the state secretariat, which was earlier on shut since 27th March, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and later reopened to staff on grade level 13 and above from Monday 27th April, 2020, would now be open to all other staffers from Monday, 22nd June, 2020.
According to the statement, students in critical classes are to resume at the end of June to ensure they are well-prepared for the public examinations ahead of them.
The statement read:
“The schools are to observe the COVID-19 protocols as released by the Task Force, ensure that stations for washing of hands are provided in all schools, while all students are to compulsorily wear face masks.
“Schools are to provide hand wash points with the support of their Parents/Teachers Associations (PTA).
“The resumption of critical classes at the end of June 2020, would be two clear weeks ahead of the state’s drop-dead date of July 15. By that date,
it would be decided whether other categories of students will return to the classes.” He concluded.
The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) has announced 160 as the 2020 cut-off mark for admission into Nigerian universities for the 2019/2020 academic session.
JAMB said the cut-off mark for Polytechnic is 120 while that of Colleges of Education and other innovative institutions stands at 100.
Speaking at the 2020 policy meeting on admissions to tertiary institutions on Tuesday, the Registrar of JAMB, Prof. Ishaq Oloyede, said 612, 557 candidates were offered admission in 2019 out of the 1.8 Million that wrote the examination.
He said about 510,957 admission spaces were unused by tertiary institutions in 2019.
He said candidates waiting for their results will only be considered when they are uploaded on its website.
In his remarks, the Minister of Education, Adamu Adamu directed JAMB and tertiary institutions to proceed with the conduct of 2020/2021 admissions.
He said admission processes are expected to commence in August based on the guidelines released by JAMB.
The minister who was represented by the Minister of State for Education, Emeka Nwajiuba, appealed to JAMB and tertiary institutions to consider candidates with previous years’ Senior School Certificate Examination and other qualifying results for the admission process.
This is against the backdrop of the senior secondary school examination calendar by the Covid-19 health crisis.
He said the government will make an arrangement to accommodate applicants who will be taking the examination when the opportunity to do so is worked out.
“As major stakeholders, we must jointly come up with reactions that would realign our programmes to these new realities. While these reactions are being fine-tuned to check their capacities and capabilities to withstand the new reality,” he said.
According to him, JAMB and the tertiary institutions could take advantage of the current situation and consider candidates with previous years’ Senior School Certificate Examination and other qualifying results, to proceed on with the admission process.
“Whatever arrangement that the country comes up in the long run, will surely accommodate those who will be taking the examination when the opportunity to do so is worked out.”
The JAMB cut-off marks are coming at a time when must students are at home due to the Covid-19 pandemic.