Tag Archives: #PDP

Politics: WHY I LEFT PDP – GOV. DAVID UMAHI

Governor David Umahi of Ebonyi State has said he wants to be a martyr who will be sacrificed to achieve the much-sought Igbo presidency.

David Umahi made the declaration on Tuesday in Abakaliki while briefing newsmen, noting that only martyrs make sacrifices for the peoples’ interest in difficult times.

The governor, who confirmed that he is defecting from the Peoples Democratic Party to the All Progressive Congress, said he will not regret the decision no matter its outcome.

“I have to lead the protest against the marginalisation of the Igbos by the PDP and I don’t have to consult anybody to lead such a protest.

“I don’t want the PDP to collapse in the South-East but it can collapse itself in the zone if it does not heed the peoples’ advice to entrench justice, fairness, and equity.

“The PDP should be bold to declare its stand on zoning of the presidency to the South-East and if it cannot, should tell us why we are not capable of holding such a position but will come for our votes during elections,” he said.

Umahi said that the decision to leave PDP was not about leadership but about patriotism, justice, fairness and the overall interest of the people.

“I am not vying for any position in the APC so anybody who does not like me over the defection will be fighting the air.

“I will instead play the fatherly role of guiding anyone who wants to vie for any position because it is a waste of time for any governor to seek to replace himself.

“When you are looking for everybody to be loyal to you in politics, you might not get to your destination because destinations are not straight but full of obstacles,” he said.

Umahi said that he will not be disturbed if the APC fails to zone the presidency to the South-East but will depend on God to determine the matter.

“The APC, however, appears to be amenable towards working with the South-East even though the South-East never supported it the way it supported the PDP since 1999.

“We would be 24 years with the PDP by 2023 and Ebonyi, under my administration, will testify the numerous feats we have attained with the support of my friend and father, President Muhammadu Buhari,” he said.

He said his defection has created a political gathering and mass movement, unprecedented in Ebonyi history with both PDP and APC faithful coming together to pursue a common cause.

“I will have no regrets if our agitations are not met in APC as it will be on record that a governor was sacrificed for the betterment of his people on what is rightfully, their due.

“We will still protest if we are still unfairly treated in the APC because protest is the beauty of democracy and if it doesn’t work now, it can work in future,” he said.

Edo Decide 2020: Results Shows INEC To Declare Gov. Obaseki The Winner


The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is set to announce Governor Godwin Obaseki of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) as the winner of the Saturday 19th September, 2020 Edo governorship election.

According to the results from 17 Local Government Areas confirmed by INEC so far, the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) candidate is leading with over 82,000 votes.

As it stands after results from 17 LGAs:

Ize-Iyamu/APC: 212,983

Obaseki/PDP: 295,296

As of the time of filing this report, there is only one local government area left to collate.

However, the total number of voters in Ovia South-West is 73,909.

This is lesser than the margin between Obaseki and Osagie Ize-Iyamu of the All Progressives Congress (APC), who is his closest rival.

LGAAPCPDP
AKOKO EDO22,96320,101
ESAN SOUTH EAST9,23710,565
IGUEBEN5,1997,870
ESAN WEST7,18917,434
EGOR10,20227,621
ETSAKO CENTRAL8,3597,478
OWAN WEST11,19311,485
ORHIONMWON10,45813,445
IKPOBA/OKHA18,21841,030
OWAN EAST19,29514,762
UHUNMWODE5,97210,022
ETSAKO WEST26,14017,959
ESAN CENTRAL6,71910,694
OVIA NORTH EAST9,90716,987
ESAN NORTH EAST6,55913,579
OREDO18,36543,498
ETSAKO EAST17,01110,668
OVIA SOUTH WEST10,63612,659
Total223,622307,857

PDP Should Account For Failed $460M Abuja CCTV Project, $2bn China Loan – APC

The All Progressives Congress (APC) has fired back on PDP and Atiku Abubakar in a statement signed by Yekini Nabena, the
Deputy National Publicity Secretary
All Progressives Congress (APC).

The APC spokesman said:

“The statement issued by the Media Office of former Vice President, Alh. Atiku Abubakar on the standard sovereign guarantee and sovereign immunity clause embedded in Nigeria’s loan agreements with China to fund the ongoing national railway projects can be best described as unresearched, unintelligent and pedestrian.

As the Minister for Transportation, Rotimi Amaechi has explained the guarantee/clause in the loan deals is standard irrespective of the the country granting the loan.

Perhaps, Atiku and the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) could redirect their energies to explaining to Nigerians the status of the failed $460 million Abuja Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) awarded in August 2010 by the immediate-past PDP administration.”

Mr. Yinka further said that:

“Also, they should explain the over $2billion China loan the PDP administration took between 2010 and 2013 alone; $16billion spent on power with no electricity; fuel subsidy rackets; counter-insurgency funds that were diverted and shared to political cronies among other shocking heists.

Recall that the failed CCTV installation project was initiated by late President Umaru Yar’Adua and awarded in August 2010 by former President, Goodluck Jonathan’s administration to help security agencies in the Federal Capital Territory check the growing insecurity.

Since the agreement became signed, Nigeria has been servicing this loan to China while Nigerians are yet to attest to the visibility of CCTV project and unable to explain the status of the video surveillance project. The matter is subject to a legislative probe.”

“In all of these we are starkly reminded that the PDP remains a corrupted and damaged product. Nigerians must continue to reject the party at all levels of government.

In the area of fiscal discipline, prudence, curbing leakages, are we currently getting it right? An emphatic yes! Every kobo expended on infrastructure counts. Verifiable evidence abound in the fast expanding national railway projects, airport remodelling among other critical infrastructure projects being undertaken by the President Muhammadu Buhari government.

The days of phoney contracts as institutionalised by successive PDP administrations are fast fading.” He concluded.

Edo Decide 2020: NGO Petitions EFCC over Gov. Godwin Obaseki’s N15B rain on PDP For Ticket

An NGO called the Coalition for Good Governance and Economic Justice in Africa, in a letter signed by one Comrade Steve Adepoju, addressed to the Chairman, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), with the heading, “Petition on Financial Malpractice and allegations of Fraud Totalling N15B Against Edo State Government.” Where the letter reads:

“I write to you with my whole confidence reposed in your official responsibility and well-published achievements in the prosecution of crimes, especially those of economic and financial natures in our dear country, Nigeria. My hope, riding on the strength of your renowned efficacy on these fronts, as well as the powers vested in your office by virtue of Sections 6 and 7 of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act of 2004, is that the matter I am about to bring to you will be pursued with utmost restlessness and utter forthrightness.

In recent days, I have received compelling reports from trusted sources that the dismal lack of qualification occasioned by his inability to clarify discrepancies in his academic records has forced Mr Godwin Obaseki, the current governor of Edo State, into dumping his party and joining the People’s Democratic Party. In the course of this expensive political manoeuvre, occurring at such an eleventh hour, my reports and humble inquiry into the matter have unearthed actions that clearly incriminate the governor on grounds of collusion, misappropriation of public funds, and a series of doubtlessly untoward behaviours.

To perfect his decamping from the All Progressives Congress, Mr. Godwin Obaseki has allegedly spent 15 Billion Naira on different political means and purposes. This sum was expended on his outright purchase of a PDP Edo gubernatorial ticket. Further expenditure of this money, which satisfies your respectable agency’s Establishment Act as “living above a person’s means”, includes a largesse to some PDP leaders, sponsorship and influencing of the primaries, negotiation with co-aspirants to secure their withdrawal, hotel fee payments for delegates in Benin City, and 350,000 Naira cash distribution to over 2500 delegates of the PDP.

The above-mentioned channels of expenditure are not the only practices, which involve the embezzlement of such humongous public funds by the governor, but they are compelling, fresh, recent and easily traceable, for the governor could not cover his tracks in his desperation to secure the candidature of the PDP in Edo State.

I have compelling reasons to believe that the money was not drawn from his personal wealth. To think such is to undermine logic, given that in his asset declaration, Godwin Obaseki did not define himself to be thus wealthy. Such expenditure asks the question; how did a sitting governor, estranged by his initial party where he could have easily gotten such level of financial support, derive such amount of money? If we must follow the instruction of common sense, our curiosity directs us towards the public fund. It is instructive to recall now that this same governor announced that he had spent over 1 billion naira in fighting coronavirus in his state. Days later, a collection of videos emerged from his state’s citizens, boldly lamenting insufficient and inexistent palliative support.

The Governor, of course, is not alone in manoeuvring this money heist. The looting and ambition oiling was aided by his Deputy, Philip Shaibu, the Secretary to the State Government, Commissioner for Finance, Accountant General and Executive Assistant, Tijani Nwadae to mention but a few among the network, which participated in the approval, release, and disbursements of this whooping sum.

The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission has been, especially under the uncompromising leadership of President Muhammad Buhari, indiscriminate in the prosecution of crimes of this nature. I recall that the landmark decision in FAWEHINMI v. IGP (2002) 8 SCM 77 permits the EFCC to exercise the discretionary powers imbued it in by virtue of its Establishment Act and investigate a sitting governor without violating Section 308 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended), wherein the immunity clause of serving governors is enshrined.

As I bring this case to your watchful attention, I am obligated, going by your constituted responsibility and proven mettle, to expect a prompt response and immediate action in the direction of solving this unjust economic and financial heist and exposing the masterminds to the general public.”

Edo Decide: New Hope For Gov. Obaseki As HON. Ogbeide-Ihama Steps Down

Gov. Obaseki’s confusion is coming to an end as Hon. Ogbeide-Ihama steps down for him.

Below is Hon Ogbeide-Ihama’s statement while stepping down for Gov. Godwin Obaseki:

“My dear people of Edo State, and members of the PDP in particular.

By now most of you are aware of the court injunction I instituted against our nomination processes. As painful as it is that i had to do that, I feel it is the quickest and most necessary thing to do at this time to save our party from an impending disaster.

Let me state again that I remain a very loyal and committed member of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). I have been through thick and thin with the party and have labored with many others to build the vibrant, peaceful and stable structure we had before the events of the recent days.

Politics has never been a do-or-die affair for me. I represent a generation that is passionate about its destiny and seeks to grow and thrive in an environment where things are done rightly and people can hope, expecting anticipated results of their efforts.

Before I embarked on this project to serve our state in executive capacity over a year ago, I consulted extensively with leaders within and outside our party, and with the assurances and promise of support I got, we embarked on the tedious and demanding process of reaching out and building relationships and alliances with our by and seeks to grow and thrive in an environment where things are done rightly and people can hope, expecting anticipateouingly materialized with their ‘bringing’ the Governor into the party on the same day we were to have primaries they had influenced to be postponed.

I have spent quite some time in politics and I understand that due to its dynamism, sudden strategic calculations may necessitate re-alignments and the need to make sacrifices. Such a situation is not one I would reject. What I found difficult to understand was the brazen manner in which a process that was a few hours to completion could be bastardized, established rules and due process turned on its head, hard-work and efforts treated so inconsequentially, and key stakeholders treated so shabbily and disrespectfully, all in the bid to enthrone what had all the clothings of illegality. No dedicated member of the PDP deserves to be treated that way.

By now most of you are aware of the court injunction I instituted against our nomination processes. As painful as it is that i had to do that, I feel it is the quickest and most necessary thing to do at this time to save our party from an impending disaster. 

Let me state again that I remain a very loyal and committed member of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). I have been through thick and thin with the party and have labored with many others to build the vibrant, peaceful and stable structure we had before the events of the recent days.

Before I embarked on this project to serve our state in executive capacity over a year ago, I consulted extensively with leaders within and outside our party, and with the assurances and promise of support I got, we embarked on the tedious and demanding process of reaching out and building relationships and alliances with our members across the 18 local Governments of the state. This year-long exercise culminated with another ‘meet-the-delegates tour’ across the state last week, after which we came back to prepare for primaries. Suddenly the brewing plan by certain ‘leaders’ in our party who for certain reasons had decided they were going to stop my ambition by all means, shockingly materialized with their ‘bringing’ the Governor into the party on the same day we were to have primaries they had influenced to be postponed.
I have spent quite some time in politics and I understand that due to its dynamism, sudden strategic calculations may necessitate re-alignments and the need to make sacrifices.

Such a situation is not one I would reject. What I found difficult to understand was the brazen manner in which a process that was a few hours to completion could be bastardized, established rules and due process turned on its head, hard-work and efforts treated so inconsequentially, and key stakeholders treated so shabbily and disrespectfully, all in the bid to enthrone what had all the clothings of illegality. No dedicated member of the PDP deserves to be treated that way.

Even with such travesty and injustice, my loyalty to the party was my first consideration and I expected that necessary actions would be taken to manage an already ugly situation. If anything changed, the least that was expected was that a meeting would be called where issues could be tabled and discussed, especially pertaining to the internal and external dangers related to the process that brought in the governor. Nothing of such was done. (That a man marries a new wife does not mean the old one must be sent packing ingloriously, forgetting that she contributed to the beauty the new wife saw in the man in the first place).
My action is not an affront to the party or its leadership as some people may decide to interpret it, but rather a last attempt to save the party from making a major blunder that could lead to series of lawsuits with a possibility of disqualification of the party from participating in the September 2020 Edo Governorship Elections.I state unequivocally that I was very happy to welcome our governor His Excellency Godwin Obaseki into the party. PDP remains a progressive umbrella that is open to everyone that can add value to our common goal, and I believe our governor offers such value.

What this injunction is about is the flawed process that has been adopted to put the governor on the ballot for the primaries. A dispassionate and critical look at the process adopted to allow him participate in the primaries will show that probably as a result of the rush to make it happen, a couple of illegalities may have been made which could create legal loopholes for our opponents or aggrieved parties to exploit. It is expected that we learn lessons from the situation in the last elections with the opposing party in Zamfara and Rivers States.

By now most of you are aware of the court injunction I instituted against our nomination processes. As painful as it is that i had to do that, I feel it is the quickest and most necessary thing to do at this time to save our party from an impending disaster.

Let me state again that I remain a very loyal and committed member of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). I have been through thick and thin with the party and have labored with many others to build the vibrant, peaceful and stable structure we had before the events of the recent days.

Politics has never been a do-or-die affair for me. I represent a generation that is passionate about its destiny and seeks to grow and thrive in an environment where things are done rightly and people can hope, expecting anticipated results of their efforts.

Before I embarked on this project to serve our state in executive capacity over a year ago, I consulted extensively with leaders within and outside our party, and with the assurances and promise of support I got, we embarked on the tedious and demanding process of reaching out and building relationships and alliances with our members across the 18 local Governments of the state. This year-long exercise culminated with another ‘meet-the-delegates tour’ across the state last week, after which we came back to prepare for primaries. Suddenly the brewing plan by certain ‘leaders’ in our party who for certain reasons had decided they were going to stop my ambition by all means, shockingly materialized with their ‘bringing’ the Governor into the party on the same day we were to have primaries they had influenced to be postponed.

I have spent quite some time in politics and I understand that due to its dynamism, sudden strategic calculations may necessitate re-alignments and the need to make sacrifices. Such a situation is not one I would reject. What I found difficult to understand was the brazen manner in which a process that was a few hours to completion could be bastardized, established rules and due process turned on its head, hard-work and efforts treated so inconsequentially, and key stakeholders treated so shabbily and disrespectfully, all in the bid to enthrone what had all the clothings of illegality. No dedicated member of the PDP deserves to be treated that way.

Even with such travesty and injustice, my loyalty to the party was my first consideration and I expected that necessary actions would be taken to manage an already ugly situation. If anything changed, the least that was expected was that a meeting would be called where issues could be tabled and discussed, especially pertaining to the internal and external dangers related to the process that brought in the governor. Nothing of such was done. (That a man marries a new wife does not mean the old one must be sent packing ingloriously, forgetting that she contributed to the beauty the new wife saw in the man in the first place). My action is not an affront to the party or its leadership as some people may decide to interpret it, but rather a last attempt to save the party from making a major blunder that could lead to series of lawsuits with a possibility of disqualification of the party from participating in the September 2020 Edo Governorship Elections.

I state unequivocally that I was very happy to welcome our governor His Excellency Godwin Obaseki into the party. PDP remains a progressive umbrella that is open to everyone that can add value to our common goal, and I believe our governor offers such value.

What this injunction is about is the flawed process that has been adopted to put the governor on the ballot for the primaries. A dispassionate and critical look at the process adopted to allow him participate in the primaries will show that probably as a result of the rush to make it happen, a couple of illegalities may have been made which could create legal loopholes for our opponents or aggrieved parties to exploit. It is expected that we learn lessons from the situation in the last elections with the opposing party in Zamfara and Rivers States. Sentiments must never override due-process, justice, equity and legality. Established rules should not be twisted or broken at the whims and caprices of anyone who feels like it, for whatever reason. No serious system will thrive in such practices. 
It will be a shame and most painful to a lot of us and the Edo people in general if the PDP goes ahead with the primaries coated with irregularities just to have the whole process cancelled at a later date through legal action. That, I believe will be a major setback and greatly demoralizing for our dear party and those passionate about it.

My decision to take this stand is because it seems nobody is paying attention to this very important situation. Let it be clear that my action is actually me putting the interest of the party above all other considerations. I have never played desperate politics. I have won elections, and I have lost election. In all I have accepted the legitimate outcomes and looked to the future. If we will change our society for the future, we must get our politics right by entrenching a process that is decent, fair, follows due process and respects the rights of individuals to achieve whatever visions they chose to pursue. While this has led to all forms of aspersions on my person, (the first of such magnitude since I joined politics in 1999), I have chosen to see my present actions as my contribution to making that happen for my generation and those coming after us who would desire to participate in governance.

A well conducted process will produce a candidate. Whoever that candidate is will have my full support as has been my antecedent in the party; but as I have always promoted, let the right process be followed. We must do what is necessary to protect the stable Edo PDP we have worked tirelessly for, this last couple of years. I ask that you all disregard the various falsehoods being spread around by these ‘strange’ characters about my actions being sponsored by forces to frustrate the governor, or that this is for pecuniary gain. Such things have never deserved my attention or response. As I have always said, such crude and unrefined politics remain beneath me.

Let me state that these views I have expressed are not mine alone, but also of many of our teeming members and supporters who are saddened and demoralised by this unfortunate situation. I apologise to all my leaders who I continue to hold in high esteem, supporters and party faithfuls who feel unhappy and surprised at this action I have taken. For me, it is a matter that borders on deep morals, unwavering principles, and strong character, which have formed the cornerstones of my existence.
Finally, I want to express my deep and profound gratitude to the very respected elders across our state who have reached out to me to intervene in this matter. I have listened and I am still listening”.

“God bless out great party PDP. God bless our dear Edo State. God bless us all.” He concluded.

Clash of Court Orders, Gov. Obaseki On A Confused Political Rollercoaster

In another twist the Governor of Edo State and a Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) governorship aspirant, Mr. Godwin Obaseki, will participate in Thursday June 25 primaries of the party ahead of September governorship election in the state.

This is as a result of a High Court of Justice in Ekpoma Judicial Division, Edo State restrained the PDP, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and others from removing, preventing or purporting to exclude the Edo State Governor, Obaseki, or any other aspirant, who have been cleared by the party, from participating in the gubernatorial primaries.

The Judge, J. O. Okeaya-Inneh, ruling in a suit filed by Felix Irioh and Tom Irehobhude, said in a ruling that:

“I find in my humble view that the applicants have satisfied the guidelines for the grant of the orders sought as enjoined in the celebrated landmark case of Kotoye v CBN (1989), 1 NWLR PT. 98, 419 at 441.”

The judge further added that:

“The balance of convenience is in favour of the 1st and 2nd applicants and there is no undue delay in bringing this application. It is in that light that I find merit in this application.”

The defendants in the suit are Dr. Tony Aziegbemi, the PDP, Hon. Andy Ikhajiangbe, Peter Akhimien and INEC.

The applicants sought “an Order of Interim Injunction restraining INEC from however refusing to recognize and/or accept the name of any of the aspirants named in paragraph 2 above especially Mr. Godwin Nogheghase Obaseki as lawful aspirants having been lawfully screened and cleared by the 2nd Defendant to participate in the 2nd primary election scheduled to hold on the 25th June, 2020 in any report of the monitoring of the said primaries pending the hearing of the Motion On Notice.”

The judge adjourned the matter to July 1, 2020, for hearing of pending applications.

The order documents below:

We shouldn’t forget that earlier on Gov. Obaseki was ban via an order given on 22nd June, 2020, by Justice E. A. Obile of the Federal High Court in Port Harcourt.

The order was based on a motion Ex-Parte filed by a PDP member, Omoregie Ogbeide-Ihama.

Joined in the suit are Prince Uche Secondus, the PDP, Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the Chairman of the party’s screening committee, Kingsley Chinda and other members of the committee.

Obaseki, an APC renegade, was named as the eighth defendant in the case.

The applicant dought for a court order to restrain Secondus and the party from allowing Obaseki to buy the forms for the primary, other than those who bought the forms within the timetable initially published for the election.

Justice Obile granted the interim injunction as requested.

The PDP, mindful of the legal minefield announced a waiver for Obaseki, to enable him to participate in the primary election, even though he joined the party only on Friday 19 June last week.

The party also reconvened the Chinda screening committee which had ended its assignment on 5th June, 2020 and the committee screened Obaseki on Saturday 20 June.

And all the parties in the suit had been served with the earlier order via substituted means.

With this new Court Order from the Edo State High Court, we now have two conflicting order of court of coordinate jurisdiction in display, this is a ticking time bomb for both PDP and Obaseki in the long run and this political roller-coaster if care is not taken will only lead to further complications, which end result will be devastating.

Hopefully, the governor will avoid the banana peels in the end.

Edo DECIDE: PDP GOVERNORS’ Forum Assurance To Gov. Godwin Obaseki

The Peoples Democratic Party Governors’ Forum, has assured the Governor of Edo State, Mr Godwin Obaseki, and his supporters that the party will provide a level playing field for all of them.

Obaseki and his supporters had on Friday joined the party.

The Governor Aminu Waziri Tambuwal-led PDP Governors’ Forum wished Obaseki God’s blessings and guidance as he subjects himself to the forthcoming primaries of the party.

If Obaseki wins the primary election, the governors assured him of their support in his bid to get re-elected.

This was contained in a statement signed by the Director-General of the PDP Governors’ Forum, C.I.D Maduabum, in Abuja, on Saturday.

The PDP governorship primary for Edo State is scheduled to hold on Thursday, June 25, 2020.

Maduabum described Obaseki’s entry into PDP as a homecoming to a democratic platform.

He said, “We welcome you to the PDP Governors’ Forum under the leadership of His Excellency, Rt. Hon Aminu Waziri Tambuwal, CFR, and all other PDP Governors in the Forum.

“Your entry into the PDP family is a homecoming to a democratic platform that accommodates all Nigerians desirous of good governance, accountability, and deepening of democratic tenets.

“The PDP Governors welcome you to use the PDP as a vehicle to enthrone rapid economic, social, and infrastructural development of Edo State.

“As you subject yourself to the forthcoming primaries of the party, we wish you success and God’s blessings and guidance.

The Forum extends the solidarity and support of your colleagues to you and all of your teeming followers into the party and assures you all of accommodation and level playing field.

Edo 2020: Gov. Godwin Obaseki Defects To PDP

The embattled Gov. Godwin Obaseki of Edo State, has taken their battle for supremacy with the former benefactor and governor of the state, Comrade Adams Oshiomhole, the suspended National Chairman of the All Progressives Congress (APC) to the Next Level, when he formerly defected to the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) today.

The recent move by Obaseki did not come as a surprise to many, as the move is for long anticipated and apparently the only available option to the Governor.

Breaking: Gov. Godwin Obaseki of Edo State In A Meeting With GOV. Nyesom Wike

BREAKING: GOV. GODWIN OBASEKI OF EDO STATE IN A MEETING WITH GOV. NYESOM WIKE

The embattled Governor of Edo State is in a private meeting with the Rivers State Governor, Mr Nyesom Wike, to discuss a possible but apparent move to PDP.

It is no longer a secret that the time of Gov. Godwin Obaseki in the All Progressives Congress (APC) is off, since he was the screen out by the APC Screening Committee for the party primary election for the ticket of the party in the Edo Decide 2020.

The governorship tossle is now more of internal crisis between the governor and the APC National Chairman, Comrade Adams Oshomhole.

Details of the meeting will follow later.